Modern web applications typically rely on chains of multiple servers, which forward HTTP requests to one another. The attack surface created by this forwarding is increasingly receiving more attention, including the recent popularisation of cache poisoning and request smuggling vulnerabilities. Much of this exploration, especially recent request smuggling research, has developed new ways to hide HTTP request headers from some servers in the chain while keeping them visible to others – a technique known as “header smuggling”. This paper presents a new technique for identifying header smuggling and demonstrates how header smuggling can lead to cache poisoning, IP restriction bypasses, and request smuggling.
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